Davidson, D. S.; 'Australian Netting and Basketry Techniques' in The Journal of the Polynesian Society; 1933; pgs. 257-299.
English; Discusses Australian netting and Basketry techniques including simple buttonhole, loop and twist, and hourglass.
Davidson, D. S.; 'Knotless netting in America and Oceania' in American Anthropologist, New Series, 37; 1935; pgs. 117-134.
English; Discusses American Continent and Pacific Island nålbinding. Includes diagrams of many buttonhole variations, loop & twist variations, hourglass variations, and the O/UO B1 & U/OO F3 variants.
Dépôt de la Paroisse de Delémont; Color photo of the socks of St. Germain (most probably his relic) ~ 5 inches by 5 inches (arranged as in the article by Stekoffer) and a photocopy of what appears to be the information card that would go with them at the museum. It is in French but there is an English translation below it.
de Dillmont, Thérèse; Encyclopedia of Needlework; D.M.C Library; Editions Th. De Dillmont, Mulhouse, France, 1975.
English; Includes various needle laces based off or including buttonhole and loop & twist variants.
de Dillmont, Therese; Encyclopedia of Needlework; New Edition, revised and enlarged; D.M.C Library; Bracken Books, London, 1987; ISBN 1-85170-014-5.
English; See above.
Finch, Karen; Summary in English of; Åsle Vanten: Description and Pattern; by Lundwall, Eva & Nockert, Margreta; Riksantikvarieämbetets Textilsektion, Stockholm, 1982.
English; A description of the Asle mitten including a supposed # of stitches per row pattern that is not correct (at least in the finger area). However it does include information on how the fringe was made.
Frazén, Anne Marie; 'En medeltida socka i nålning' in Uppland: årsbok; Upplands fornminnesforening; 1963; pgs. 38-47.
Swedish; Discusses the sock found in Uppsala made using the UOO/UUOO variant, dating to the Late Middle Ages. Includes many good photos of the sock, some needles, and a sock from Söderköping from the Middle Ages along with a mitten of much more recent origin.
*Frazén, Mari-Louise; email coorespondence; 07 July 2000.
Gauslaa, Torbjørg; 'Nålbinding' in Norsk Husflid Vol. 3, 1976; pgs. 4-14.
Norwegien; Includes a short history of nålbinding and instructions, with pictures, for variant UOOO/UUUOO F2. Has a picture of the mitten from Oslo's Old Town c 1100's.
Geijer, Agnes; Birka III: Die Textilfunde aus den Gräbern; Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien; Uppsala, 1938.
German; Describes a type of embroidery that appears to be buttonhole stitch and occasionally used detached from other backgrounds. She calls it Ösenstich. It is necessary to note that although the common German term for nålbinding appears to be Schlingenstich, what Geijer refers to as Schlingenstich in this article is very definatly not nålbinding.
Geijer, Agnes; 'The Textile Finds from Birka' in Cloth and Clothing in Medieval Europe: Essays in Memory of Professor E. M. Carus-Wilson, (Pasold Studies in Textile History 2); ed. N. B. Harte & K. G. Ponting; Heinemann Educational Books, The Pasold Research Fund Ltd., 1983; pgs. 80-99; ISBN 0-435-32382-2.
English; Content basically as above but in English. She suggests translating Ösenstich as "reverse chain-stitch".
Geijer, Agnes; 'The Textile Finds from Birka: Birka III, Die Textilfunde aus den Gräbern, revised by author' in Acta Archaeologica Vol. 50 - 1979, København, 1980; pgs. 209-222.
English; Similar content as above.
Gómez-Moreno, Manuel; El Panteon Real de las Huelgas de Burgos; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas; Instituto Diego Velázquez; Madrid, 1946.
Spanish; Contains photos and a brief description of a nålbound mitten belonging to María de Aragón, daughter of Jaime II, le sobrevivía en 1331. The main part of the mitten is worked in a sort of patterned buttonhole stitch.
Grass, Milton; 'The Origins of the Art of Knitting' in Archaeology Vol 8 No. 3 Autumn (Sept.) 1955; pgs. 184-190.
English; Incorrectly identifies the Duro Europos fragment and the 3rd-6th cent Eygptian socks as knitting. Does have some nice pictures.
Gustafsson, Kerstin; Gamla Textila Tekniker I Ull; Kerstin Gustafsson och LTs Forlag AB Boktryck, Helsingborg, 1990; pgs, 17-37, 114; ISBN 91-36-02703-0.
Swedish; Provides a brief introdution to nålbinding and its history. Includes instructions, with diagrams, for the UOOO/UUUOO F2, UUUOOO/UUUOOOO F2, UOU/OUOO F2, U(U)O/UO:UOO F1+1, U/OO, and simple buttonhole variants.
Haakinsdotter, Elsa (Ruth Decker); 'Numerical breakdown for hats'; unpublished, 1998.
Decker, Ruth; email coorespondence; cites Paths towards a Stratified Society by Ingegerd Sarlvik in the series Stockholm Studies in Archaeology; Spring 2000.
Decker, Ruth; email coorespondence; 'How to shape a hat, by the numbers'; Spring 2000.
Hald, Margrethe; Ancient Danish Textiles from Bogs And Burials: A Comparative Study of Costume and Iron Age Textiles; Publications of The National Museum of Denmark; Archaeological Historical Series XXI; Translated by Jean Olsen; Fyens Stiftsbogtrykkeri, Copenhagen, 1980; ISBN 87-480-0312-3.
English; Provides a classification system for nålbinding or "looped needle netting". Gives a history of nålbinding describing many items. Provides pictures, instructions, and more often diagrams for many variations. The buttonhole variants are included under the 'sewing and embroidery' and 'mesh stitch' catagories. Good intro book.
Hald, Margrethe; 'Lundavanten' in Kulturen: en årsbok till medlemmarna av kulturhistoriska foreningen for södra Sverige; Kulturhistoriska foreningen; 1945; pgs. 80-83.
Swedish; Describes a Middle Ages mitten from Lund. Gives diagram of UO/UOO F1.
Hansen, Egon H.; 'Nalebinding: definition and description' in Textiles in Northern Archaeology, Textile Symposium in York, North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles Monograph 3, NESAT III; London Archetype Publications, 1990; pgs. 21-27; ISBN 1-873132-05-0.
English; Provides a classification system for nålbinding and a proposed definition. Includes structural pictures for a number of variants.
Hansen, Egon H.; 'Nålebinding og brikvævning fra Mammengraven: Mammenhøvding eller kvide?' in Mammen : Grav, kunst og samfund i vikingetid; ed. Mette Iversen; Jysk Arkæologisk Selskabs Skrifter XXVIII, 1991; pgs. 145-148; ISBN 87-7288-571-8; ISSN 0107-2854.
Danish; Describes the Mammen Pennants. Classifications appears to be backwards, i.e. seen from the other side.
d'Harcourt, Raoul; Textiles of Ancient Peru and their Techniques; trans. by Sadie Brown; ed. by Grace G. Denny and Carolyn M. Osborne; University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1962; Library of Congress CCN 62-17150.
English; Includes a large section on the figures done in "loop stitch' on the Paracas Textile and some other items from Peru between 200 BC - 200 AD.
Harris, Jennifer ed.; Textiles, 5,000 Years: an international history and illustrated survey; © The Trustees of the British Museum; Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, 1993; pg. 48.
English; Has a nice color picture of a 2nd cent. AD sock from Eygpt and includes part of Burnham's diagram for 'crossed-loop knitting'. This book does recognize it is not Knitting.
Hoskins, Nancy Arthur; Universal Stitches for weaving, embroidery, and other fiber arts; distributed by the University of Washington Press, Seattle and London; Skein Publications, Eugene, OR, 1982, second printing 1985; ISBN 0-295-96274-7; Library of Congress Catalog Card number 82-80789.
English; Includes diagrams for a number of buttonhole variants and a picture of a Nazca (c 0-200AD) necklace sized ceremonial circlet of birds and flowers.
Hutchinson, Elaine; 'Nalebinding: the history origins, construction and use of 'needle-binding' with specific reference to the 'Coopergate sock''; May 1992; Regia Anglorum Publications, 1995; http://www.regia.org/naalbind.htm.
English; While focusing primarily on the Coppergate sock it aslo includes some history.
Joseph, Marjory L.; Introductory Textile Science: Second Edition; Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., USA, 1966, 1972; ISBN 0-03-086679-0; Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 70-171525.
English; Includes a table of: coiling (simple loop), (figure-of-eight stitch), (simple loop with knitting effect), coiling with foundation, and Vantsöm (half knot) which doesn't look like any vantsöm I've seen.
Kaukonen, Toini-Inkeri; 'Kinnasompelun levinneisyys ja tyotavat Suomessa' in Suomen museo, Vol. 67; Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistys, Helsinki, 1960; pgs. 44-73.
Finnish; Discusses nålbinding in Finland. Includes photos of several pieces, both old and modern. Includes diagrams of a number of variants. Has a summary in German.
Kaukonen, Toini-Inkeri; Suomalaiset kansanpuvut ja kansallispuvut; WSOY; Werner Söderström, Osakeyhtiö, Porvoo, Helsinki, Juva, 1985; pgs. 93-99, 366; ISBN 951-0-12794-9; Title translated as "Finnish Folk Costumes and Present-Day use of 'National Dresses'".
Finnish; Includes a brief section on nålbinding.
Nålbinding Bibliography: Annotated Continued Dav-Ka
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© 2001 Anne Marie (Decker) Haymes